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Hypertension – causes, symptoms, treatment

According to statistics, every third adult Pole suffers from hypertension, i.e. a condition that is high blood pressure in the vascular system. Terrible people are at risk. We can talk about high blood pressure when it is above 140 mmHg, but only in the case of systolic blood pressure, and 90 mmHg in the case of diastolic pressure. We divide blood pressure into:

  • pressure below 120/80 mmHg – it’s good, optimal
  • systolic pressure 120-129 mmHg and / or diastolic 80-84 – this is also the normal blood pressure;
  • systolic blood pressure of 130-139 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure of 85-89 mmHg – this is normal, but high blood pressure.
Pressure gauges: hypertension

INTERESTING FACT: The blood pressure value depends on the number of beats per minute, the force of heart contraction, the work performed, stress, and the volume of blood in the body.

There are also types of pressure, such as:

  • Stage I hypertension – systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 90-99 mmHg.
  • Second degree arterial hypertension – systolic blood pressure is 160-179 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure is 100-109 mmHg.
  • Stage III hypertension – systolic blood pressure is above 180 mmHg, and diastolic pressure above 110 mmHg.

The reasons

Due to the types of hypertension, the causes for each of them are distinguished:

secondary hypertension – most often occurs as a result of other worsening ailments in the patient. The diseases that can significantly increase the risk of high blood pressure are:

Cushing’s syndrome – significantly increased levels of cortisol in the blood
kidney diseases – chronic problems
renal artery disease
Conn’s syndrome – excessive production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands
obstructive sleep apnea
aortic stenosis

primary hypertension – the cause is unknown to this day. It has been assumed that this may be due to genetics or environmental factors, etc.

Nevertheless, there are other factors that can contribute to the occurrence of high blood pressure. The most common include:

Overweight people
Cigarette smokers
Incorrect lifestyle
Abdominal obesity and others
No traffic whatsoever
Consume alcohol in large amounts and frequently
Eating a lot of salt


In the first phase, the patient may not feel any symptoms related to hypertension, but when the disease begins to develop, the situation may turn into a slightly worse situation. The main symptoms include:

Acute headache
Hot flushes
Redness of the face – around the cheeks
Shock of temperature change – hot / cold

The development of hypertension can cause problems such as vision problems, swelling of the limbs, and abnormal kidney function.

How to recognize hypertension?

If regular measurements show that the systolic blood pressure exceeds 140, and the diastolic blood pressure exceeds 90 mmGg. In adult patients, the cause of hypertension is usually unknown. A special diagram is used to diagnose the disease in children – the percentile grid. The known methods of diagnosing hypertension include:

Blood pressure measurement – taking measurements twice a day and delivering it to the doctor may already contribute to faster diagnosis of hypertension. The next step should be an interview with a doctor who will rule out any disturbances in the results due to other causes such as stress, smoking, etc.

Exclusion of any complications in the patient

Cardiac echo examination – determines the condition of the heart and possible wall hypertrophy

Laboratory examination – it is best to perform potassium levels, peripheral blood counts, sodium levels, and glucose

How to cure hypertension?

The main method of treating high blood pressure is the use of antihypertensive drugs, whose task is to lower the pressure and bring it back to normal. An additional recommendation that will contribute to the improvement of the patient’s condition is a general lifestyle change. When changing the lifestyle, we should start with increasing physical activity, stopping smoking, if necessary, losing unnecessary kilograms, limiting the consumption of salt, and stopping drinking alcohol. An additional solution may be supplementation with vitamins prescribed by a doctor. The most commonly used preparations that cure the patient are:

aldosterone antagonists
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers – lower blood pressure
diuretic preparations
sympathetic lowering beta-blockers
calcium channel blockers

What products should not be eaten with hypertension?

  • yellow cheese
    salty sticks
    fast food
    powdered soups
    fat meat
    ready-made sauces
    smoked fish

Assistant in making correct pressure measurements at home

  1. Measure your blood pressure only in a sitting position, after at least 10 minutes’ rest.
  2. Do not smoke or drink coffee, exercise half an hour before it can also affect the result.
  3. It is best to place the forearm of your non-dominant hand on a flat surface, at the same level as your heart.
  4. Your back should be straight or leaned.
  5. The feet must be straight on the floor.
  6. Take 2 or 3 measurements at a time, one minute apart and take the average value from them.
  7. Remember to write down your blood pressure results on a piece of paper and hand them over to your doctor.

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