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Aplasia – everything you need to know

Aplasia occurs when an organ, limb, or body part fails to develop during fetal development. Many types of aplasia will become apparent at birth, but some may not show up later in life. Several similar conditions also occur, such as hypoplasia, atrophy, agenesis, and dysplasia.

Aplasia – types

As we already mentioned, aplasia affects organs, limbs and other parts of the body, so the breakdown of aplasia is quite wide. We will discuss several types of aplasia in this article.

Aplazja - wszystko co musisz wiedzieć

Acquired red cell aplasia (WORK)

The process of creating red blood cells in the bone marrow begins with the formation of erythroblasts. These, in turn, later turn into erythrocytes. People with red blood cell aplasia do not develop red blood cells. Therefore, the red blood cells necessary for the body are not produced in the bone marrow. The affected person may have aplastic anemia. Symptoms of red blood cell aplasia include:

fatigue
pale skin
depression

In most cases, the cause of this type of aplasia is unknown, but doctors mention autoimmune diseases, thymic diseases and viral infections as possible causes.

Aplasia cutis congenita

Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare disease that causes newborns to have a lack of skin on parts of the body. In some cases, underlying structures such as bones may also be absent.

This congenital condition most commonly affects the scalp. However, it can affect any part of the body. The affected areas have a thin transparent membrane instead of the dermis. In some cases, it is possible to see the baby’s internal organs through this membrane.

The reason is probably a mutation of genes.

Radial aplasia

The radius is the bone that connects the humerus to the wrist. People with radial aplasia are born without a radial bone. Without the radius, the forearm appears shorter than it should be. In addition, the palm and wrist point inward towards the thumb of the forearm.

Germ cell aplasia

In the seminal tubules in the testes, spermatogenesis, that is, the formation of sperm, takes place. Tubules contain two types of cells: spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells.

Spermatogenic cells help in the process of spermatogenesis. One of the main functions of Sertoli cells is to nourish the sperm.

People with germ cell aplasia have Sertoli cells but no spermatogenic cells. This type of aplasia has no physical symptoms. However, it is associated with infertility. Therefore, in most cases, it is only when trying to get a baby that shows the disease.

Thymus aplasia

The thymus gland is a gland that plays an important role in the immune system. Although the thymus only functions until puberty, it helps young T cells to mature.

T lymphocytes recognize and attack harmful microbes and cells such as bacteria, viruses and tumors. However, each T cell only fights one type of microbe or cell.

In people with thymic aplasia, a small piece of the chromosome is missing. A child without a thymus gland is at high risk of life-threatening infections.

Lung aplasia

In rare cases, a baby may be born without a single lung. This type of aplasia can be difficult to identify on an antenatal screening.

Agenesis, hypoplasia and atrophy

Agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia are very similar conditions, and they all have different stages of incomplete development of parts of the body.

Agnesia – This is the complete absence of an organ.

Hypoplasia – this is the underdevelopment or incomplete development of a part of the body

Atrophy (atrophy) – partial or complete destruction of a cell, organ or tissue. It manifests itself in the smaller size of the organ, and therefore its smaller functionality.

Aplasia and dysplasia

Dysplasia is the abnormal development of cells in tissues or organs. Unlike aplasia, where an organ or tissue does not develop from the earliest stage,

Dysplasia can occur in any part of the body and can affect both children and adults. A doctor can recognize the disease in a developing fetus before birth and may cause developmental problems as the baby grows older.

In adults, dysplasia usually refers to abnormal tissue or cell growth. These cells can be precancerous and form tumors if they continue to grow.

There are many types of dysplasia.

Summary

Aplasia occurs when an organ, limb, or body part fails to develop during fetal development. Many types of aplasia will become apparent at birth, but some may not show up later in life. Several similar conditions also occur, such as hypoplasia, atrophy, agenesis, and dysplasia.

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