Obesity has reached the proportions of a global epidemic.
We live in a time when access to sports centers was limited. The physical activity of children and adults is very little. Remote work, closed gyms, gyms, swimming pools significantly limited our already poor physical effort. The effects of these actions can already be observed, for example, among children who have been deprived of the opportunity to develop their bodies in a healthy and sporty way, and were instead given sedentary teaching in front of a computer. Most of them have become significantly lazy and have led to the increase of a few unnecessary kilograms, which may translate into obesity in the future.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with a number of additional diseases, including hypertension, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing, certain cancers, and most heart diseases. Excessive body weight affects a growing group of people living in Poland. Due to its negative impact on various risk factors associated with heart disease, obesity has a profound impact on the development of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, heart attacks and atrial fibrillation, and is a general cause of increased mortality. Despite its negative impact, numerous studies have demonstrated the obesity paradox, which says that obese or overweight people suffering from various types of heart disease had a better prognosis than those who did not suffer from obesity.
The World Health Organization has identified obesity as the most common metabolic disease in the 21st century. In adults, overweight is defined by the BMI (Body Mass Index), which ranges from 25 to 29.9 kg / m ^ 2, while in the case of obesity, the BMI is above 30 kg / m ^ 2. Results vary with age, gender, and race, but obesity can also be measured by other methods such as Waist Diameter (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), and Body Fat Percentage, which can sometimes be more accurate. Recent studies indicate that obesity is linked to more factors than smoking, alcoholism and poverty, and with current trends, obesity may even become the leading cause of death, at least in the US, ahead of cigarette addiction. Obesity may lead to a reduction in life expectancy, which has increased steadily so far.
What are the health consequences of obesity and overweight?
Type 2 diabetes
Cardiovascular diseases due to atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension
Respiratory disease (night apnea syndrome)
Certain malignant tumors
Degenerative bone diseases
Decline in quality of life
Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of overweight or obesity should only be used as an adjunct to lifestyle changing therapy and not as a sole intervention. The use of pharmacotherapy results in a greater reduction in body weight and increases the long-term efficacy of the treatment compared to treatment with lifestyle changes alone.
Drugs that support weight reduction currently registered in the European Union are:
- a combination drug naltrexone hydrochloride + bupropion hydrochloride (Mysimba) – both of these active substances affect two major areas of the brain, namely the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Indicated for use as a supplement to a reduced calorie diet and with increased physical activity to reduce body weight in adult patients
- liraglutide – An analog of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), the GLP-1 incretin hormone, enhances the glucose-dependent secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. The drug also delays gastric emptying, lowers body weight and fat mass by suppressing appetite and energy intake, and improves glycemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide regulates glucose in a glucose-dependent manner. pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.
- orlistat – is a specific, long-acting inhibitor of lipases produced in the gastrointestinal tract. It works by reducing the absorption of fats and reducing the amount of calories you get. Orlistat works in the lumen of the digestive tract. It inhibits the activity of lipase by binding to the active serine center of the enzyme. When using the recommended dose of orlistat, fat absorption is reduced by approx. 30%
Plant preparations used in obesity
- appetite suppressant
- effect on fat metabolism
- Apple cider vinegar – stimulates the genes responsible for the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver and regular consumption of apple cider vinegar significantly reduces body weight. Preparations: Apleplus forte, Apleplus + vitamins C and E.
- Green coffee (chlorogenic acid) – slows down the absorption of sugars and their transformation into fatty acids. It stimulates the burning and elimination of fats from tk. fatty tissue. Speeds up the metabolism.
- Preparations: Apleplus forte, Apleplus C, E.
Bitter orange – senephrine stimulates the CNS, which accelerates the metabolism – burns fat tissue. It affects the functioning of the central nervous system, does not cause mood disorders, excessive nervousness or palpitations. Preparations: Figura extraslim, SimpliQ
- Pineapple – Bromelain is an enzyme that helps digest proteins into amino acids; anti-inflammatory, anti-swelling, anti-coagulant, anti-cancer properties, Biotin – supports the carbohydrate reduction process, Fiber. Preparations: Biogarden, Pineapple in tablets.
- central stimulants to reduce appetite
- caffeine – Guarana paste – caffeine metabolites contain: Paraxanthin is responsible for the increase in lipolysis, releasing glycerol and free fatty acids into the blood as energy sources. Theobromine is a vasodilator that increases the amount of oxygen and nutrients delivered to tissues, accelerates catabolic processes, increasing the demand for oxygen.
- Mate folium-Chemistry: Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline), Flavonoids, Tri-terpene saponins, Phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids). Action: Stimulating, diuretic, positive inotropic, lipolytic. Preparations: Yerba Slim Active, fix tea.
- Other auxiliary
- sedative – influence on emotional reactions
- diuretic – remove fluids
- facilitating defecation – Licorice smooth
- increasing the level of thyroid hormones – iodine – fucus – fucus
- Licorice: anti-inflammatory and protective for the stomach, soothing and soothing for the respiratory tract, can raise blood pressure, has a laxative effect, thanks to its filling effect and refreshing character it is a good ally in diets, it is an excellent substitute for tobacco or a cigarette. Keeping the root in your mouth and hand, and the intense flavor of the licorice lozenge make it easier to quit. Preparations: Normogran, Figure Herbapol.
- Bladder wrack – Iodine compounds are necessary for the thyroid gland to produce the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones accelerate metabolism, prevent obesity and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. Polysaccharides are able to swell in the intestines. Preparations: Slim Figura 55+, Adipobonisan, Jodofix
Obesity – additional tips:
Remember to exercise regularly.
Before each meal, drink a glass of water.
Provide the body with the right amount of vitamins and minerals when using a diet.
In the event of rapid weight loss, check uric acid levels.
Do not take laxatives for weight loss.
If you are unable to cope with obesity yourself, consult a doctor for the selection of appropriate therapy.
- Brończyk-Puzoń, A. Koszowska, J. Nowak, A. Dittfeld, J. Bieniek, The epidemiology of obesity in the world and in Poland,
- Seravalle, Obesity and hypertension, Pharmacol Res. 2017 Aug,
- Pietrzykowska, B. Wierusz-Wysocka, Psychological aspects of overweight, obesity and weight loss.