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Hives – causes, symptoms, treatment

Hives – this is a common skin disease. A characteristic lesion that is noticeable during hives is skin blistering or swelling. Often, hives, due to its


Over the years, factors that favor the development of the disease have been distinguished:

Various physical factors – change of ambient temperature cold / heat, hot bath, sun rays, pressure, exertion causing sweat production, contact with water, vibrations, rubbing, scratches. This group can also be called cholinergic hives.


Due to an allergic reaction which is divided into:
Food – fish, milk, eggs, vegetables, nuts, fruit.
Latex – Often the cause is the wearing of latex gloves
Drugs – penicillin and its derivatives can have a negative effect, acetylsalicylic acid, inflammatory drugs, anti-tetanus serum.
Some insects are poisoned
Plant pollen
Some chemical ingredients – dyes, spices.
The hair of some animals – most often rodents
Infections – most often caused by bacteria, fungi, viral infections, and gastrointestinal parasites
Diseases of the thyroid gland – in patients whose nettle recurs – occurs quite often, the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies is noticeable.
Autoimmune diseases – a good example is vascular urticaria in the course of systemic lupus.

Types of hives

  • Idiopathic urticaria – appears spontaneously, its causes and origin are unknown. Its duration is approximately 6 weeks. Among the symptoms of this type of urticaria, we can distinguish quite a lot of angioedema.
    Cholinergic urticaria – the cause of this type of urticaria is an increase in body temperature, e.g. after exercise. A characteristic symptom are lumps with a diameter of about 1 to 4 mm, which appear just 20 minutes after the temperature increase in the human body.
    Food urticaria – the result is an allergic reaction to food such as fish, eggs, milk, soybeans.
    Contact urticaria – the cause, as the name suggests, is the most common contact: latex, fish, nuts, crustaceans, fruit, resin, animal saliva.
    Aspirin urticaria – Urticaria may occur as a result of taking aspirin or a drug that contains aspirin. Food products can also cause this reaction, such as plums, avocados, raspberries, cherries, linden, thyme, black currants, blueberries, dark grapes.


The symptoms of urticaria are quite distinctive, but are often confused with other skin conditions. The most common symptom is porcelain-pink blisters with or without swelling. In addition, the patient may experience constant itching. Changes in the body can be:

They can be of any shape / shape – a good example is hives caused by scratching or rubbing, the symptoms of which are red lines, not blisters.
They can occur anywhere and anywhere on a person’s body – more specifically, hives can affect the entire body or be concentrated in just one area.

Vascular urticaria is an exceptional case, i.e. the course of which lasts no longer than 48 hours, and the symptoms do not include skin itching. These types of ailments fade under the pressure of a finger and stay in one place for a short time.

An exception is also called acute hives, i.e. the course in which, apart from the standard symptoms, there is also headache, general malaise, fever, joint pain, digestive system disorders.

It is worth remembering that the appearance of any blisters or swelling on the lips or eyelids, you should immediately see a doctor. Acute hives may be one of the first symptoms of an anaphylactic shock.


The most important thing is to react quickly and not to underestimate the symptoms. After going to the doctor, tell about all the symptoms and pain associated with the disease. To diagnose urticaria, it is recommended to perform an immunoglobin IgE concentration along with an immediate skin test.

If there are any suspicions of allergic or food-related urticaria, apply an elimination diet for 7-10 days. The patient should eat rice, drink water, weak tea, and in the following days introduce new foods and drinks, carefully observing the skin.


If we observe hives at home, we can take antihistamines, which we can buy without a prescription. If, despite taking the drug, there is no improvement, see a doctor immediately.

The treatment of acute urticaria is assumed by a physician by administering oral medications, e.g. a glucocorticoid drug. Medicines in ointments are also available, but they are used very rarely due to the large number of side effects.

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