Why is sinusitis not to be taken lightly?
Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common medical condition in the general population. It is estimated that most children catch a cold an average of 5 times a year, while adults 2 to 4 times. Anatomically, we distinguish 4 pairs of sinuses: frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid, they are air-filled spaces that connect with the nasal cavity. Do not ignore the symptoms as this may lead to serious complications, such as meningitis or encephalitis.
What is the pathogenesis of sinusitis?
The proper functioning of the sinuses depends on maintaining patency. At the time of a cold, the air spaces in the sinuses may become filled with nasal discharge, reducing the activity of cilia in the cells that line the sinuses. This leads to fluid retention in these places, increasing the risk of infection with viruses, bacteria or fungi. Loss of patency may also be caused by a craniofacial trauma, curvature of the bony septum of the nose, being in a polluted environment (tobacco smoke, dust), as well as nasal polyps and cystic fibrosis. Contact with an allergic or infectious agent can lead to swelling of the mucosa, which results in impaired cilia function, thickening of the mucus and disruption of its flow. Complications after dental treatment are very often forgotten risk factors, including periodontitis after tooth extraction, or caries. It can therefore be said that sinusitis is not a single disease, but is a group of diseases of different etiology, but with the same clinical symptoms.
How do you recognize sinusitis?
Necessary for diagnosis of sinusitis is nasal congestion and / or swelling of the nasal mucosa, as well as discharge of secretions running down the back of the throat, causing coughing. Local symptoms include a feeling of distressing pain or pressure on the entire face, increasing when bending, sneezing, coughing, and hearing problems. Loss of smell is also possible in acute sinusitis.
Home remedies for getting rid of sinusitis
- Cleansing the nasal mucosa of impurities by rinsing the nose with isotonic and hypertonic water solutions. Hypertonic solutions reduce the swelling of the nasal mucosa. An example of a preparation may be Marimer.
- They are very popular because they help to get rid of the residual secretions, and are also easy to prepare: add table salt, chamomile, mint or essential oils to a bowl of hot water, e.g. pine, eucalyptus or lavender. We cover our head with a towel and inhale the vapors for several minutes.
- Adequate hydration throughout the day
- Applying warm compresses.
- Infusions of linden, thyme, chamomile, sage. Add ginger, cloves to tea, thanks to them we get antibacterial and warming effects.
To get rid of secretions, you can try decongestants of the nasal mucosa and sinuses, thereby reducing swelling, in the form of drops (containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, xylometazoline) eg Sudafed XyloSpray HA, Xylometazolin WZF, Otrivin. THESE PREPARATIONS SHOULD BE USED 5 TO 7 DAYS, as this may result in addiction and the appearance of recurrent swelling.
There are also medicines taken orally with an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic effect, and also reducing congestion of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, such as Ibuprom sinus, Sinupret (herbal preparation).
Corticosteroids are used in the case of allergic infections.
In the case of more severe sinusitis that do not go away, see a doctor within 5 days who will administer appropriate pharmacotherapy. Depending on the cause, it may be an antibiotic or other medicine.
Rutter: Pharmaceutical care. Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment., Elsevier Urban and Partner.
Wójcik, A. Szulc, T. Stawińska, Diagnostics of sinusitis in the context of imaging tests.
Szczeklik, P. Gajewsk, Interna Szczeklik.